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Full text of "Early British trackways : moats, mounds, camps, and sites"



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Presented to the 

LIBRARY of the 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 

from 

the estate of 

ANN BODDINGTON 







A.W. 




FRONTISPIECE. 



Castle Tomen, Radnor Forest. 

A Glade on a Ley. 

Four Stoiv"-, New Radnor. 



Early British 
Trackways, Moats, 
Mounds, Camps, 
and Sites* 



A Lecture given to the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club, at Hereford, 
September, 1921, by ALFRED WATKINS, Fellow and Progress Medallist 
(for 1910), of the Royal Photographic Society; Past President (19 19) 
of the Woolhope Club. With illustrations by the Author, and much 

added matter. 



1922: 

Hereford: THE WATKINS METER Co. 
London : SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, KENT & Co., Ltd. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Table of Illustrations 


page 
4 


Foreword 


7 


Introduction 


9 


Outline of Conclusions 


10 


Proof 


11 


The Ley 


12 


Antiquity of the Ley 


13 


Individuality of a Ley 


13 


Mounds 


14 


Earth-cuttings 


15 


Water Sighting -points 


15 


Mark-stones 


16 


Sighting Stones 


17 


Trees 


19 


Camps 


20 


Churches 


21 


Castles 


22 


Traders' Roads 


22 


Hereford Trackways 


23 


Traditional Wells 


24 


Previous Data 


25 


Roman Roads 


26 


Place Names 


..26 


Discovery by Place Name 


30 


The Ley-men 


30 


Hints to Ley-hunters 


31 


A Few Leys 


33 


Endword 


34 


Index 


35 


Acknowledgments 


41 



TABLE OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



FRONTISPIECE. Top. Castle Tomen, Radnor Forest, 1,250 feet 
above the sea, and is supposed to be the Cruger Castle of the 
Itinerary of Giraldus. Background. A glade on a ley. 
Bottom. The Four Stones, New Radnor, the easterly pair 
lined up for sighting over. 

PLATE I. PRIMARY PEAK. Titterstone Clee Hill, and Park 
Hall, Bitterley. 

PLATE II. MOUNDS. 1 , Tre-fedw, Pandy. The Skirrid, a primary 
peak, in distance. 2, Didley. With homestead alongside. 

PLATE III. MOUND and MOAT. 1 , Houghton Mound. 2, Lemore 
Moat. Note how slight is the dividing line between this type 
of mound and a moat. 

PLATE IV. THREE-POINT PROOFS. 1 (a telephotograph), Here- 
ford Cathedral and Pen-y-Beacon. Here the camera stood 
on a known ley in gateway near top of Hafod Hill, and the 
line runs through pond at foot (marked by sheet of paper), 
tower of Cathedral, and the 20 mile distant mountain point 
or bluff. Another ley is seen crossing the meadow in a straight 
line just where " the lowing herd winds slowly o'er the lea." 

2, Tre-fedw Mound (see Plate II.), shown at top of sighting 
line down present road to ancient Monnow ford (alongside 
present bridge) at Llanvihangel Mill. 

PLATE V. SIGHTING CUTTINGS (all telephotographs). 1, Notch 
with earthwork at Trewyn Camp above Pandy (Black Moun- 
tains). 2, Cutting through top of ridge at Marstow, a bridge 
now spans it, and the sighting line down to a ford on the Garron 
is indicated. The road beyond the cutting is on the ley. 

3, Black Darren, Longtown (Black Mountains). This is taken 
from the Tan House, Longtown, and only 100 yards to right 
or left the notch begins to lessen and then disappear. 

PLATE VI. CAUSEWAYS. 1, Through pond near Ten Houses 
(now Priory Terrace), Holmer. Note the unmistakable 
direction, confirmed on map. 2, Through the River Monnow, 
behind Tan House, Longtown. A piece of fine engineering, 
the below-stream edge of large stones embedded in grouting 
or concrete. This ley is over the notch in Plate V. 



PLATE VII. CAUSEWAYS. 1, Over a ford of Olchon Brook, 
Longtown. 2, Ingestone, Ross. Through the " fold " and 
straight to the centre of the pond against the house. I cannot 
assign a period to any of these. 

PLATE VIII. LEYS DISPLAYED. 1, Rhiw (mountain track) 
south of Llanthony Abbey, Mon. This is sighted for Bal- 
mawr on the ridge, and shows that where possible even moun- 
tain side tracks were kept straight. Taken in evening light 
and shows (on left) the triple tracks down which it is surmised 
the tile stones for roofing the Abbey to have been slid from 
the quarry on the top. 2, Stones at base of ancient Wye-side 
causeway at Bartonsham (formerly Bassam) Farm, Hereford 
City. The stones continue in a " wash-out " in bed of river 
to right, and the ley is sighted over tumps at Hoggs Mount 
and Holmer Lane. Note on bank to right the mark-stone 
for the ford (see Plate IX.). 

PLATE IX. MARK-STONES. 1, Red Lion, Madley. On a " red 
line " ley from the Whitney pottery. Note subsequent 
boundary stone alongside. 2, Credenhill. 3, Wye Street, 
Hereford, marking the Palace Ford ; there are a pair of these 
stones. Bartonsham Farm, Hereford (see Plate VIII.). 

PLATE X. TRANSITION OF MARK-STONE TO CROSS. 

1, Wergin's Stone, Sutton. With flat face suited for sighting. 
A cavity for payments (or offerings) on the flat base. Early 
example of " shaft and base." 2, Pedlars Cross above 
Llanigon. A menhir chipped into rude semblance of a cross. 

3, In churchyard, Vowchurch, un worked base. A ley runs 
through it. Inset, Sighting hole in shaft of Bitterley Cross. 

4, In Capel-y-fin churchyard (Black Mountains). 

PLATE XL CHURCHYARD CROSS. Bitterley (see Inset Plate X.). 

PLATE XII. TREE. Eastwood Oak, Tarrington, on a ley. 

PLATE XIII. TREES. 1, A " One Tree HiU " near Llanvihangel- 
nant-Melan. 2, Monnington Walks, an avenue of Scotch 
Firs (Scots Pines) on a ley sighted on Scar Rock, Brobury, 
seen in distance. See Map, Plate XIX. 



PLATE XIV. CAMPS. 1, Sutton Walls. One of the sighting mounds, 
there being four, a pair at eastern end, a pair at this the western 
end. 2, Herefordshire Beacon. Winds Point to the left. 

PLATE XV. CHURCH. Church Lane, Ledbury. The detached 
tower of Ledbury Church is shown on the ley. 

PLATE XVI. CASTLE. Wigmore Castle. The keep is on a sighting 
mound, the ley passing also through the church, as is almost 
invariable where castle and church are near together. 

PLATE XVII. CASTLE. Brampton Bryan Castle (on a sighting 
mound) with Coxall Knoll, another mound, in the distance on 
the right. 

PLATE XVIII. HOUSE IN MOAT. Gillow. 

PLATE XIX. MAP. TWO LEYS, a, Consecutive strips con- 
taining the straight ley from Glascwm Hill to Birley Hill via 
four mounds ; Turret Tump, The Camp, Batch Twt, Almeley, 
Moat, Sarnesfield Coppice ; and Weobley Church, b, Little 
Mountain to Holy Well Malvern, through Moccas " Castle " 
Tump, Preston-on-Wye Church, Byford Ford, Holmer Church, 
Palmer's Court, Moat, Shucknell, Walsopthorne. Portions of 
two interesting leys are also shown, c, Scar Rock, Bro- 
bury, through Monnington Walks to Monnington Church (see 
Plate XIII) ; and d, Little Mountain (Westbrook), through 
Arthur's Stone (dolmen), Cross End, Moccas Church, Mon- 
nington Church, St. Ann's Well, and Priory Church, Malvern. 

PLATE XX. MAP. Portions :of eight leys passing through 
Capel-y-tair-ywen (Chapel of the three yew trees), a chapel 
site, originally a mound, described in Woolhope Transactions, 
1898, p. 38, on the high plateau below the great northern 
escarpment of the Black Mountains, a, Hay Tump (near 
church ford) to Pen-y-Beacon, on to Castle Tump, Rhos-goch. 

b, Mouse Castle to Tumpa, passes through Maes-coch (red field), 
Priory Wood, and the ancient " red " pottery, Whitney. 

c, Merbach to Llanelieu Church, d, Mynydd-brith Tump to 
Talgarth Church, e, Castle Tump, Dorstone, to Moat at 
Felin-fach. f, Snodhill Castle to Aberllynfi Gaer ; beyond 
Snodhill it passes to or through Holy Well, near Blakemere. 
G, Michaelchurch Escley to Llanigon Mound, h, Black Hill 
(Olchon) to Painscastle Mound. 



FOREWORD. 

To the Average Reader. 



I judge that you pick up this booklet with much the same ideas 
on the subject that I had a few months ago. The antiquarians had 
not helped you or me very much, but had left us with vague ideas and 
many notes of interrogation. 

On early trackways they alternated between a misty appreciation 
of hill-tracks and ridgeways, and an implied depreciation of all track- 
makers before the Romans came. To learn the meaning of mounds 
they did not go beyond the child's investigation of a drum, cut it 
open to see ; and, if nothing was there, quite failed to profit by such 
valuable negative evidence. In perhaps one moat in five they found 
a dwelling, and argued finely on the defensive importance of a ring 
of water ; but as to the other four, with no dwelling, and in unexplained 
positions, they closed their eyes. 

I do not know, dear reader, whether you will be as much astonished 
in reading the new facts which I disclose, and the deductions I feel 
obliged to make, as I have been in the disclosure. Frankly, if another 
person told them to me, I should want to verify before acceptance. 
And I try to aid you to verify. But do note this — that the important 
point in this booklet is the previously undiscovered string of facts, 
which make it necessary to revise former conclusions. My deductions 
may be faulty. But the facts are physical ones, and anyone can test 
in their own district whether moats, mounds and churches do not 
line up in straight lines with a hill peak at one end, and with bits of 
old tracks and antiquarian objects on the line. 

So please do not begin with the false — as being inapplicable- 
— word " theory." I had no theory when, out of what appeared to 
be a tangle, I got hold of the one right end of this string of facts, and 
found to my amazement that it unwound in orderly fashion and 
complete logical sequence. 

Make your own deductions when you have verified, and I have 
tried to help you. 




B^SflMBHHftv 




Plate II. 



MOUNDS. 

i. Tre-Fedw, Pandv. Skirrid in Distance. 
2. Didley. 



EAELY BEITISH TEACKWAYS. 

MOATS, MOUNDS, CAMPS AND SITES. 



INTRODUCTION. 



I have read of a lad who, idly probing a kill-side rabbit hole, 
saw a gleam of gold, then more, and in short had found a royal treasury. 
And he could not show all to those interested, but only samples, and 
he made mistakes in describing the dates and workmanship of the 
coins, vessels and jewels. But the treasure was there all the same. 

I knew nothing on June 30th last of what I now communicate, 
and had no theories. A visit to Blackwardine led me to note on the 
map a straight line starting from Croft Ambury, lying on parts of 
Croft Lane past the Broad, over hill points, through Blackwardine, 
over Risbury Camp, and through the high ground at Stretton Grandi- 
son, where I surmise a Roman station. I followed up the clue of 
sighting from hill top, unhampered by other theories, found it yielding 
astounding results in all districts, the straight lines to my amazement 
passing over and over again through the same class of objects, which 
I soon found to be (or to have been) practical sighting points. 

For the sake of clearness I will give an outline of the whole 
method before furnishing proofs and examples. 

It is necessary first to clear the mind of present ideas of roads 
from town to town, or with enclosed hedges, also of any assumption 
that orderly road planning was introduced by the Romans, and that 
my paper is to explain the Roman roads. 

Presume a primitive people, with few or no enclosures, wanting 
a few necessities (as salt, flint flakes, and, later on, metals) only to be 
had from a distance. The shortest way to such a distant point was 
a straight line, the human way of attaining a straight line is by sighting, 
and accordingly all these early trackways were straight, and laid out 
in much the same way that a marksman gets the back and fore 
sights of his rifle in line with the target. 



OUTLINE OF CONCLUSIONS. 

During a long period, the limits of which remain to be discovered, 
but apparently from the Neolithic (later flint) age on past the Roman 
occupation into a period of decay, all trackways were in straight lines 
marked out by experts on a sighting system. 

Such sighting lines were (in earlier examples) from natural moun- 
tain peak to mountain peak, usually not less than 1,000 ft., in this 
district, probably lower heights in flat districts, such points being 
terminals. 

Such a sighting line (or ley) would be useless unless some further 
marking points on the lower ground between were made. Therefore 
secondary sighting points were made, easily to be seen by the ordinary 
user standing at the preceding sighting point, all being planned on 
one straight line. These secondary, and artificial, sighting points 
still remain in many cases, either as originally made, or modified to 
other uses, and a large number are marked on maps, and are the basis 
of my discovery. 

They were constructed either of earth, water or stone, trees 
being also planted on the line. Sacred wells were sometimes terminals 
in the fine, and sometimes included as secondary points. 

Between the sighting points the trackway ran straight, except 
in cases of physical impossibility, but did not of necessity go as far 
as the primary hill tops. 

Earth sighting points were chiefly on higher ground, and now 
bear the name of tump, tumulus, mound, twt, castle, bury, 
cairn, garn, tomen, low, barrow, knoll, knap, moat and camp. 
Another form of earth sighting point was in the form of a notch or 
cutting in a bank or mountain ridge which had to be crossed by the 
sighting line. 

Water sighting points seem to have evolved from the excavations 
made for the tumps or moats. Almost all are on low ground, to form 
a point or ring of reflection from higher ground, and are now known 
as moats and ponds. 

Stone sighting or marking points were natural (not dressed) 
blocks. 

Sighting fines were (in earliest examples) up to 50 or 60 miles 
in length, later on rather shorter, down to a few miles. 

Sighting points were used for commerce and for assemblies of 
the people. 

10 





MOUND AND MOAT 

i. Houghton Mound. 
2. Lemore Moat. 




Plate IV. 



HREE-POINT PROOFS 



i. Sighting Pond, Hereford Cathedral, Pen-y-Beacon. 

Ford at Llanvihangel Mill, Road, Tre-Fedw Mound. fSee Plate II.) 



When troublesome times came and stronger defences wanted, 
the groups of two or three sighting tumps which came near together 
(especially on the top of a hill) often had defensive earthworks added 
to make a fortified enclosed camp. 

These trackways of successive ages grew so thick on the ground 
as to vie in number with present day roads and by-ways. 

All forms of sighting points became objects of interest, super- 
stition, and genuine veneration, and as such were utilized on the 
introduction of Christianity. 

Practically all ancient churches are on the site of these sighting 
points (tumps or stones), usually at a cross of tracks, and there is 
evidence that in some cases the churchyard cross is on the exact spot 
of the ancient sighting or marking stone. 

In time, homesteads clustered round the sighting points, 
especially the ponds. 

The moats and tumps were often adopted in after ages as sites 
for the defensive houses or castles of wealthy owners. 

Hundreds of place names give support to these propositions. 

PROOF. 

The facts I have discovered, which lead up to the conclusions, 
can be verified for the most part on an inch to mile ordnance map 
with aid of a straight edge. 

Taking all the earthworks mentioned, add to them all ancient 
churches, all moats and ponds, all castles (even castle farms), all 
wayside crosses, all cross roads or junctions which bear a place name, 
all ancient stones bearing a name, all traditional trees (such as gospel 
oaks), marked on maps, and all legendary wells. Make a small ring 
round each on a map. Stick a steel pin on the site of an undoubted 
sighting point, place a straight edge against it, and move it round 
until several (not less than four) of the objects named and marked 
come exactly in line. 

You will then find on that fine fragments here and there of 
ancient roads and footpaths, also small bits of modern roads con- 
forming to it. Extend the line into adjoining maps, and you will 
find new sighting points on it, and it will usually terminate at both 
ends in a natural hill or mountain peak, or sometimes (in the later 
examples) in a legendary well or other objective. 

If you travel along the actual sighting line you will find fragments 
of the road showing as a straight trench in untilled land, although 

II 



these are few and far between, as the plough obliterates it all. The 
line usually crosses a river at a known ford or ferry. Sighting tumps 
not marked on the map are also to be found. 

Two specific proofs are illustrated in Plate IV. and explained 
in the Table of Illustrations. Also from the highest point of the earth- 
works of Dinedor Camp the spire of All Saints' Church can be seen 
precisely between the pinnacles of Hereford Cathedral, thus showing 
a sighting tump and two churches on one ley. The Offa Street example 
(see under Churches) is another three-point proof. 

THE LEY. 

The sighting line was called the ley or lay. Numbers of farms 
and places on sighting lines bear this first name, viz., the Ley Farms, 
Weobley, Grafton, Stoke Edith, and many other places. Wyaston 
Leys, Monmouth, Tumpey Ley and Red Lay, near Letton, and Redley 
in Cusop parish. 

There were cleverly planned high level mountain tracks which, 
although on an average sighting line, could not (being on the side of 
a mountain ridge) keep straight, but took a serpentine course, in 
round the cwms, and out round the headlands. But viewed edgeways 
they are a straight line (see Plate VIII.) as keeping a uniform level or 
slope. Such are found high on the Malvern ridge, the road (on three 
leys) through Oldcastle to Blaen Olchon, the lovely Bicknor Walks 
near Symonds Yat, the Precipice Walk near Dolgelly. 

There are signs of parallel trackways quite close together, whether 
one to take the place of an older one I do not know. And between 
Malvern Wells and Hanley Swan are three symmetrical triangular 
woods (see Map, Plate XIX.), which I find indicate parallel roads, 
one-sixth mile apart, running northwards, and with a collecting road 
here at right angles, which comes over the ridge and through Mainstone 
Court. There are six of these equidistant parallel roads. 

The fact of the ley is embedded in the rural mind. A country 
man in directing your path will invariably bring in the now mis- 
leading, but once correct, " keep straight on." It was once absolutely 
necessary to " keep straight on " in the ley, for if you did not you 
would be de-leyed on your journey. This is not said as a pun, but 
as in some succeeding sentences, to point out the place of the ley in 
the evolution of our language. 

Where the ley laid in a wood became a glade (see Frontispiece). 
We came through one over Worsell Wood in a Club excursion on our 
way to Gladestree. Where the ley had lain for a time often became 

12 



a lane. This last noun became a verb used in the 18th century enclosure 
acts, where ground was " laned out." Where it was so laned out it 
became land. There is a Laynes Farm near Huntley. 

It is still a common phrase to go out to see " the lay (or lie) of 
the land." 

The trackways are chiefly 6 feet 6 in. to 9 feet wide. I illustrate 
two pitched causeways at Longtown, a fine one through the Monnow 
near the Tan House, and the other close to a ford over Olchon Brook 
(Plate VI.). Another through the farm yard at Ingestone (Ross) 
going to the centre of the sighting pond (Plate VII.). 

ANTIQUITY OF THE LEY. 

The word " ancient " covers a vast period. If — as I have proved 
— the tumps or burys are sighting tumps, excavations also prove that 
they usually date back to the Neolithic age, which, according to Mr. 
Ault's recent " Early Life in Britain," cannot be later than 2,000 B.C., 
and may be 4,000 B.C. A prehistoric trackway might, therefore, 
be planned and made more than three thousand years before the Old 
Road (which is a route rather than a road) was devised or evolved — 
as Mr. Belloc so well describes — as a Pilgrim's Way from Winchester 
to Canterbury. 

I have found that the persistent things down the ages are not 
the courses of the roads or tracks, but their sighting points, and that 
cross roads with a place name are such. Place names are also per- 
sistent, some of them going back to prehistoric times, but others 
evidently media? val. But the real dating of the leys and when the 
system fell into decay is for future investigation. 

INDIVIDUALITY OF A LEY. 

Each ley or track was as separate and distinct from other leys 
as each animal or tree is an organism distinct from other animals or 
trees. As they crossed each other, no doubt users often transferred 
from one to the other at the crossing, and struck out in an altered 
direction, hence the place name element " turn." But the way thus 
travelled was a route, not a road. It is an absurdity to speak of a 
sighted road having branches, or bending. Each individual track was 
" a long lane that has no turning." 

Previous writers, treating, say, of Roman or of mediaeval roads, 
not knowing of the existence of the ley, assume that they are speaking 
of original primary structures, when they are only describing a route 
evolved from a number of the leys I describe, retaining the sighted 
structure in the case of Roman roads, but losing most of it by mediaeval 
times. x - 



Many leys acquired in after ages individual names from the use 
they were put to, and such names were transferred to the sighting points. 

I find in several cases a group of leys with sighting points passing 
quite close to, and taking no notice of, quite a distinct group of leys 
with other sighting points, the two sets being either of two different 
periods, or part of separate systems made by different sets of ley-men 
living in different districts. 

A most surprising fact is the enormous number of leys. 

MOUNDS. 

The mounds whose many names I have mentioned are artificial. 
I do not question the fact that they were often used as burial mounds, 
and perhaps even built with that end in view ; but the straight leys 
on which I find practically all in this district line up (in connection 
with other sighting points) prove their primary purpose to be sighting 
tumps. Arthur's Stone, a dolmen, which was probably the core of 
a burial tump, is on two sighting lines. 

I find various stages of evolution of the tump. The small tump 
at a road junction for the local road construction, examples at Cross 
in Hand, Belmont, Hungerstone, Shelwick old Turnpike, near Bowley 
Town (called the Stocks). With most of these the pond from which 
the earth was dug adjoins. When much larger tumps were wanted 
the trench of earth to make them was dug in the form of a ring, and 
a moated tump resulted, as at Eardisland (with water), Pont Hendre, 
Longtown (dry). The water in these excavations proved to be splendid 
sighting points by reflection from higher ground, and the moats with 
no tump but a flat plateau within a ring of water evolved. Many 
tumps on banks, as at Tre-Fedw, near Pandy, show no excavations. 
Many tumps were at the junction of leys, showing the technical skill 
of the early surveyors, who must have moved a temporary sighting 
point on one ley until it fell in the line of a second ley. A sighting 
tump always commanded a fine, clear view in at least two directions, 
and in after ages was coveted as a dwelling spot. At Didley is an 
instance of the simple homestead against it. Thus sighting produced 
the sites, this being only one of many instances where the record of 
the ley is embedded in the English tongue. The generic name of 
Merry Hill applied (as near Hereford) to many tumps gives a clue 
to their use as assembly points for recreation, confirmed by folk 
lore and surviving customs of dancing in a circle with hands linked. 
The folk-mote was held at a tump with a dry moat, so admirably 
adapted for seating. 
14 




Plate VI 



1. Through Pond, Ten Houses, Holmer. 

2. Through River Monnow, Longtown. 



EARTH CUTTINGS. 

Where a mountain ridge stood in the path of a ley, the surveyor, 
instead of building a tump on the ridge as a sighting point, often cut 
a trench at the right angle and in the path of the ley. This shows 
as a notch against the sky and makes a most efficient sighting point 
from below. I have counted eight such artificial notches in the 
mountain ridge when on the road from Llanvihangel Crucorney to 
Longtown. Each notch can only be seen on the line of sight, and 
disappears when a quarter of a mile right or left. They are sometimes 
emphasised (as at Trewyn Camp) by an earth work thrown up on 
one side. The Wych on the Malvern ridge is an instance. 

The two fine gaps near Flansford (Goodrich) and Marstow (Plate 
V.), both with bridges over them, are also ancient sighting cuttings. 

The sighting cuttings were also used in passing over banks in 
lower ground. Cullis is one of the names for such an earth cutting, 
as Portcullis between Withington and Preston Wynne, and High Cullis 
above Gatley Park, recently visited by the Club. 

There is a very neat example of such a cutting at Hungerstone, 
near Allensmore, where the cutting in the bank allows the ley to be 
sighted on to a pond on its way to the next tump, the one close to the 
church at Thruxton. 

The word hunger (a common place-name element) indicates, 
I think, a cutting through a bank, not the bank itself, as now surmised. 
There are cuttings at most fords, which permit the water to be seen 
from above and serve as sighting points. The cutting near Charing 
Cross, which gives the name to the present Hungerford foot-bridge, 
probably came down through Inigo Jones' beautiful Water Gate. 

Mr. Codrington in his book on Roman Roads describes the 
method used by Roman engineers " well known to surveyors for 
laying out a straight line between extreme points not visible from 
each other, from two or more intermediate points from which the 
extreme points are visible. By shifting the intermediate points 
alternately all are brought to He in a straight fine." This method was 
evidently used for all the leys. 

WATER SIGHTING POINTS. 

I have suggested how these might have developed from the tump, 
and shown where pond and tump were used together. Moats are a 
similar arrangement on a larger scale. The trackways go straight 
for the island part of the moat. It is not the least amazing part of 

15 



this revelation that I find practically all the small horse or cattle 
ponds in field or homestead which are marked on a 6in. ordnance map 
have leys running through them, and that examination in dry seasons 
shows signs of the road passing through them. " And when we cleaned 
the pond out we found it cobbled at the bottom " is a frequent report 
made by a farmer. I show a photograph of one of these at Bridge 
Sollars, with the trench of the road beyond. 

A beautifully constructed causeway of even pitched stones is 
to be seen at the foot of Holmer Hill (Plate VI.). It has well 
defined edges, and lies at the bottom of a small sighting pond. In 
the crevices of its stones I found fragments of crude red pottery, 
with a bit of early (Anglo-Saxon) ornament, a bit of iron slag, and 
a bit of iron. This ley is sighted on the North Hill, Malvern. 

I cannot say that passengers walked through the bottom of 
these ponds (most of them have one shelving edge, with the opposite 
bank steep), but to this day an ancient road (at Harley Court, Hereford) 
does go through the bottom of a small pond, being sighted through 
the Cathedral. 

When there is a large central island on a moat I surmise early 
dwelling houses — a subject for spade research. There evidently came 
a wish for roads not running through the water, and a pair of ponds 
or lakes with a causeway between, such as we find at Holmer 
fish ponds, is frequently found on the map, and is the sure indication 
of an ancient trackway. Probably the square moats are later than 
the circular ones. I saw in the grass the track of a 15-foot road 
(probably Roman construction) making straight for the centre of 
Yarkhill Moat. 

Many ponds (as at Belmont, The Burcot, and adjoining Ledbury 
Churchyard) not known as moats are really such, their islands being 
sighting points. 

The causeway to the centre of the moat evidently suggested 
their use (many ages after they were made) as a defensive ring of the 
house of a rich owner, as at Brinsop, Badesley Clinton, Gillow, etc. 

I think that the word lake, now used for large sheets of water, 
was originally applied to small reflecting sighting ponds as well. The 
place names of Sutton Lakes, Withington Lakes, Letton Lakes, and 
Tumpy Lakes are explained by this theory. 

MARK STONES. 

These (Plate IX.) were used to mark the way. They were of 
all sizes, from the Whetstone on Hargest Ridge to a small stone not 

16 



much larger than a football. Some were long stones or menhirs, but 
few remain upright in this district. I know of three lying fallen on 
leys, namely on the wall at the south gate of Madley Churchyard, 
near the inn at Bush Bank (cross road from Weobley), and used as 
a bridge over a ditch near the Field Farm on the Litley-Carrots path. 

I show photographs of a fine stone at Red Lion, Madley, having 
a flat top, and of the type which developed into market stones. The 
market stone at Grosmont Town Hall (on which the first market 
basket placed on market day paid no toll) is the successor of such a 
mark stone. Two marking stones (with ancient brick houses built 
partly on them) stand unnoticed in the short Wye Street, just over 
Wye Bridge at Hereford. They mark the Palace Ford, and a ley from 
Castle Hill to Hunderton. They are of the same peculiar stone (not 
" old red ") as at Madley, Col wall, etc. 

Wergin's Stone (Plate X.) is a late type^of mark stone which 
was the prototype of the churchyard and wayside crosses, all of which 
I think are on the sites of original mark stones, as I find leys passing 
through them. 

In studying such crosses, I was puzzled to find several (as at 
Vowchurch, Hentland, Capel-y-fin) with ancient rough unworked 
stones as a base. I am now certain that these bases are the original 
stones marking a ley. The Pedlar's Cross near Pen-y-lan Farm above 
Llanigon (mentioned in Miss Jacob's fine story, " The Sheep Stealers ") 
has been chipped into a rude suggestion of a cross without taking down, 
and a flat mark stone on which Archbishop Baldwin is said (by tradition) 
to have preached when on his tour with Giraldus in 1188, has had 
a cross inscribed on it. It stands close to St. Ishaw's Well at Partricio. 

There is a striking marking stone on the Rhiw Wen route in 
the Black Mountains. 

Other stones on leys are : — White Stone, Withington (with 
original stone at the base of an inverted fragment of its successor — 
a wayside cross) ; Queen Stone, Huntsham, at Credenhill cross-roads, 
at the foot of Froom's Hill, on the road near Turnaston Church, 
marking a ford at Bartonsham Farm, Hereford, and Crossways, 
Bollingham. The stone that all the Kings of England are crowned 
on is certainly a mark stone. 

SIGHTING STONES. 

Mark stones may be on one side of the track, as are the white- 
washed stones which mark a coastguard's cliff walk to-day. But 
there also appear to have been sighting points of stone exactly on the 
ley, so constructed as to indicate its direction. 

c 17 



The Four Stones near Harpton, New Radnor, are four upright 
boulders (see Frontispiece) in an irregular quadrangle, and no one 
has explained their purpose. 

I took sighting lines over successive pairs of v stones, five lines 
being possible, and although the work on the map is not yet completed, 
I can definitely say that the " Four Stones " are directing posts which 
point out at least two leys, proved by passing through other good 
points. The first goes to the highest point in Deerfold Forest (The 
Camp, 940ft.) in one direction, and in the other through The Folly 
and on the main road at Llanvihangel-nant-Melan, over Bryn-y-Maen 
Hill, here appearing to strike another " four stones," and through 
Llansaintfraed in Elvel Church to some peak beyond. 

The second ley starts from Bach Hill (one of the highest parts 
of the Radnor Forest) ; through the Four Stones, dead on main road 
through Walton village, dead on main road past Eccles Green, through 
Upperton Farm and Kenchester Church, and dead on the present 
road which is the S.W. boundary of the Roman station of Magna ; 
then going over the Wye through Breinton Church. 

Bitterley Churchyard Cross has a circular hole through its shaft 
at a convenient height for sighting. Mr. J. C. Mackay kindly had the 
exact direction of this taken for me by sighting compass. It is 28|° 
E. of Magnetic N., and this on the map exactly strikes Abdon Burf 
(or Barf), the high point (1,790ft.) of the Brown Clee. Southwards 
the line runs through Stoke Prior and Hope-under-Dinmore 
Churches, is confirmed in other ways, and goes over the Wye at Bel- 
mont House. 

Bitterley Cross is of 14th century date ; it must be the successor 
of a sighting stone which in some way pointed the direction of the 
ley, and it suggests that sighting along a ley had not quite died out 
by the 14th century. 

These two proved instances of sighting stones, together with 
the cases of stone rows on Dartmoor, and sighting columns on Sutton 
Walls, will give the clue to the hitherto unknown purpose of many 
important ancient stone monuments. 

It is probable that the flat face of a mark stone, as in Wergin's 
Stone (Plate X.), pointed out a ley. There is a Dial Post near Tewkes- 
bury which, with the Dial Carreg near Cwm-yoy, seems to denote the 
above purpose, and the last stone is an upright shaft of rectilinear 
shape like the supposed cross at Capel-y-fin (Plate X.). 

18 




^p^pll 




Plate VIII. LEYS DISPLAYED. 

i. Track Climbing Ridge, Llanthony Abbey. 

2. Straight Wye-side Causeway, Bartonsham, Hereford. 



TREES. 

I find that practically all the named historic trees (including 
Gospel Oaks) stand on leys. Such as King's Acre Elm, Eastwood 
Oak, Great Oak at Eardisley, Oak near Moreton-on-Lugg Bridge, etc. 
Place names (which in my previous articles on Crosses I too hastily 
held to signify the site of a cross) also indicate trees as marks. Such 
are Lyde Cross Tree, Cross of the Tree at Deerfold, Cross Oak, Cross 
Ash, Cross Colloe (hazel tree cross), and two leys cross at these points. 
Actual trees are shown at the cross roads in two of the above in Taylor's 
fine county map of 1757. 

The Oak in the horse-shoe meadow at Ross is on the ley passing 
over Over Ross (the place name indicates it) and Wilton Castle. The 
steep little street coming down to the river from the Swan Hotel is 
dead on this ley. 

Where a natural hill came under a ley it was often made a sighting 
point by the planting of a single tree, hence the numerous " one tree " 
hills, as at Backbury and on the Holmer Golf Links. All places called 
" The Grove " seem to be on a ley, and a small group of trees (as at 
Ladylift) was also used to mark a sighting point. Existing trees are 
probably successors of original ones. 

I see evidence that at one time such trees were called the " stock." 
The site of the wayside cross at Winforton is known as the Stocks, 
and a marking tump in the lane for Bowley Town (or Court) has an 
ash on it, and is called by the same name, as are farms at Wellington, 
Almeley Woonton, etc. The highest point (a hill near the Three 
Elms on the " Roman " road from Kenchester to Lugg Bridge) is 
marked on the map as Bobblestock Hill. I have known it as Bubble- 
stock, but have no doubt it was Baublestock, the tree or stock (we 
still buy apple stocks in the market) where men who peddled necklaces 
and other baubles met the buyers. To-day, if you ask in a shop 
whether they keep such goods, you will, perhaps, be told that they 
have a good stock of them. 

I think that the pole (Layster's Pole, Yarpole, Lyepole, etc.) 
was a form of sighting point, lingering on to recent times as the May 
pole. 

Every considerable avenue of trees (as in parks of .country seats) 
which I have tested has a ley down its centre. 

Monnington Walks, a Scotch Fir avenue a mile long (Plate XIII.), 
is sighted through Monnington Church and the Scar Rock, Brobury, 

19 



which last can be seen central in the picture. I found the ancient 
track still on the ley at the Scar, and alongside appeared to be an 
enclosed camp with defences of a mild type, such as seem to be alongside 
many other sighting points, as Longtown and Bridge Sollars Churches. 
Other avenues on leys are at Trewyn (two), where the house, central 
with the Scotch Fir avenue, has been proved to be on a burial mound, 
at Llanvihangel Court, where tradition also asserts the house (central 
again) to be on a burial mound ; at Oakley Park, Ludlow (The Duchess 
Walk) ; and at Longworth. A feature in most of these avenues is 
that, as far as present roads or tracks go, they " lead to nowhere," 
and the discovery of the ley solves this puzzle. A striking instance 
can be seen from the Castle Mound at New Radnor, from which Harpton 
Court and Old Radnor Church are in line, and the eye looks up the 
centre of an avenue of trees climbing to the church. That beautiful 
avenue (half its beauty gone since two recent gales) with the ancient 
name Green Crise, which lines a public road out of Hereford, is on 
a ley which comes down the County College Road, over Putson Ford, 
and passes through Aconbury Church. 

One sure sign of a ley is a long straight strip of wood marked 
on the map, as from Franchise-stone to Litley, and towards Breinton 
Church. 

The word " park " had a meaning different to its present usage, 
but was probably connected with woodland, and certainly with leys, 
which pass through each of the innumerable Park Woods and Park 
Farms. 

The Scotch Fir or Pine is the tree which seems most characteristic 
of a ley, for a group of them are almost always (I notice) signs of a 
sighting point, as at Constable's Firs, Hampstead Heath. 

At the present time it is impracticable to sight from point to 
point (especially on water points) on account of intervening trees. 
It is certain that for many centuries the sighting points were used, 
and that trees did not then intervene. This throws a doubt on the 
usual glib statement that ancient Britain was one dense forest. Perhaps 
the increase of trees was a cause of the decay of the system. 

CAMPS. 
I find that every camp seems to have several leys over it, 
and that these usually come over the earthworks, not the camp centre, 
as with moats. Also that camps almost always show signs of part 
of their earthworks being tumps. At Sutton Walls are four unmis- 
takable tumps, in one of which an interment was found, and in another 

20 



(Plate XIV.) the Club at its visit saw the bases of two masonry columns 
of Roman construction, the use of which seemed a mystery. I feel 
certain they were columns built by Roman surveyors for exact 
sighting. 

Standing on the highest part of Dinedor Camp earthworks, the 
towers of Hereford Cathedral and All Saints' Church can be seen 
exactly in a line to the stand point. 

The camp plans in past Transactions show signs of tumps in 
most camps. It is impossible to assume that leys (sighted between 
two mountains) should in the scores of instances exactly fall upon 
the earthworks of camps previously built on sites selected solely for 
defence. The leys came first, and the present camp was then merely 
the site of two or more tumps. There came a period of organised 
raids and war, and where a group of tumps gave the first elements 
of defensive works, they were joined by earthworks into a complete 
enclosure for defence. Here again sighting settled the sites of camps. 
Hereford Castle Green with Hogg's Mount the only remaining sighting 
tump, others (as at the Russian gun) being now levelled, is an example. 
Many groups of tumps, never developed into camps but sufficiently 
near to be so, are to be found on the map. 

I found Caplar Camp to have so many leys over it as to seem 
the Clapham Junction of ancient trackways in that district. It may 
be that in a few cases of lofty camps (as Croft Ambury and Hereford- 
shire Beacon) they form terminals of sighting lines, but in almost all 
cases the leys pass over them. 

CHURCHES. 

These — if ancient — seem to be invariably on (not merely along- 
side) a ley, and in many cases are at the crossing of two leys, thus 
appropriating the sighting point to a new use. A ley often passes 
through a tump adjacent to the church, and a cross ley through both 
church and tump. In other cases a mark stone site became the 
churchyard cross, and a cross ley comes through both church and 
cross. In many cases one of the leys went through the tower only, 
and it is possible that tower and steeple were built to be used as sighting 
points, although on the other hand a large church did in fact block 
the road. I will make no surmises on these interesting points. The 
sighting system may have been in decay or the tracks abandoned 
when the churches were first built on the sighting points. I do not 
think it probable that leys were made to provide sites for churches. 

21 



In almost every old town or village will be found examples of a church 
built on and blocking an ancient road although new roads (as at 
Weobley) are often made on one or both sides. I show examples 
of a number. Broad Street blocked by All Saints, Offa Street (a 
striking example) with St. Peter's Tower dead on one end, and the 
Cathedral Tower dead on the other end. Other examples : Ledbury, 
Wigmore, Shrewsbury (Fish Street), Kington, and Madley, where 
tower, churchyard cross and village cross are on one ley, and tower, 
nave, chancel, and a mark stone in the village on a lengthwise ley. 

At Warwick a chapel is over a town gateway, and in Exeter 
an ancient lane is also allowed to continue as a tunnel under the altar 
of a small church, two curious instances of the right of way being 
continued and the desire of the clergy to use the site also attained. 
Kenderchurch is a striking instance of a church perched on the apex 
of a sighting mound, and in other districts I can think of Eren Tor 
(Dartmoor), Harrow, Churchdown (Gloucester), and the two St. 
Michael's Mounts, these last obviously terminals of leys, as is St. 
Tecla's Chapel out hi the channel below Chepstow, the termination of 
the beach ley which gives its name to Beachley Village. 

In London St. Paul's blocks the Watling Street and Ludgate 
Hill leys, and St. Clement Danes, St. Mary le Strand, and St. Martin's 
in the Fields are all on another ley with subsidiary roads evolved on 
each side of the churches. 

CASTLES. 

Every castle in this district has a ley passing over it, and 
originated in a sighting tump, upon which the keep was afterwards 
built when some lord selected this as a desirable site for a defensive 
home. If a large tump, there were usually some excavations which 
were developed and extended into real defensive works. 

The word castle is applied to many tumps (as in Moccas Park), 
where no building has ever existed, and to farms (as Castle Farm, Mad- 
ley), where there are signs of a tump, but merely a homestead round it. 

Where the word castle is part of a genuine place name, there 
was a sighting mound. 

TRADERS' ROADS. 

Salt was an early necessity, and " Doomsday Book " records 
Herefordshire Manors owning salt pans at " Wick," namely Droitwich. 
The salt ley for Hereford came from Droitwich through the White 
House, Suckley, Whitwick Manor, Whitestone, Withington (site of 
present chapel), White House, Tupsley, Hogg's Mount, Hereford, 

22 




RANSITION OF MARK-STONE TO CROSS. 

i. Pedlars Cross, Llanigon. 2. Wergins Stone. 

3. Churchyard Cross, Vowchurch 4. Churchyard Cross, Capel-y-Fin. 

(Inset, Hole in Shaft, Bitterley). 



and on to its terminal on Mynydd Ferddin Hill through Whitfield 
mansion. Another salt ley passes through Hen wick and Rushwick 
(Worcester), over the Storridge pass through Whitman's Wood, and 
ultimately gets to White Castle (Mon.), passing over the White Rocks 
at Garway. Similar leys pass through such places as Saltmarshe 
Castle, Whitewell House, the two White Crosses, Whitcliffe, Whiteway 
Head, the Wych pass over the Malverns. It is plain what the 
" white " man carried. 

A knowledge of the ancient pottery in the Kiln Ground Wood 
at Whitney enables me to show the meaning of the numerous red 
banks, barns, and houses. A ley through this pottery is sighted on 
Newchurch Hill and passes through Redborough, Red Lay (a cot- 
tage on main road this side of Letton) ; the ley is then dead on two 
miles of the present high road as far as the Portway, and passing 
through the Home Farm, Garnons (where the ancient road exists), it 
ultimately reaches the little Red House, the old Tannery House at 
The Friars, Hereford ; the ley goes on through Woolhope Church, 
but the small local potter had come to his limit and the reds cease 
on this road. Another ley from this pottery runs through the Red 
Gates and Eardisley Park. 

What the " black " man carried is indicated by the name still 
given to the smith who works in iron. Whoever carried to or from 
the local forges, whether it was ore, charcoal, or iron, would be black. 

The earliest trade (before metals were worked) must have been 
in flints, and as a man who wanted such would not have gone across 
Gloucestershire to the nearest chalk districts to fetch them, the flint 
chippers, or knappers, would come on the road to sell them. The 
sighting tumps called the Knap are common, and if I wanted to search 
for flint flakes, I should go to the base of the Knaps, their earliest 
market. Tin Hill, Tinker's Hill, and Tinker's Cross have a similar 
meaning. 

HEREFORD TRACKWAYS. 

More than a score come through Hereford. There are sighting 
tumps at Hogg's Mount (Castle Green), Mouse Castle (also marked 
as Scots Hole), Gallows Tump (Belmont Road), Holmer Golf Links, 
Holmer Lane (top of old brick field), and an important one, Merry hill 
(in Haywood Forest), now marked as Beachwood. There also have 
been (now demolished) sighting tumps or points at Castle Hill, Palace 
Courtyard, Overbury (Aylestone Hill), The Knoll, Tupsley. And 
remains of one for the Castle ferry is on the line of earthwork bounding 
the Bishop's Meadow. 

23 



A riverside track sighted over Hogg's Mount and Holmer Lane 
Tump is illustrated in Plate VIII. 

I have found trackways through the sites of each of the ancient 
churches. St. John's Street extended passes exactly through the 
chancel of the chapel of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem at 
Widemarsh. Barrol Street through the site of St. Guthlac's. In 
evening light a trackway can be seen from the Castle Green terrace, 
running through the large elm stump in the Bishop's Meadow to 
certain railings on the river bank, it runs by Vaga House, Quay Street, 
site of Blackfriars Church, northwards to Brimfield Church, and 
southwards through a moat this side of the rectory at Upper Bulling- 
ham. Other straight trackways are visible through an orchard behind 
Kilburn (Aylestone Hill), on this year's show-ground near the Three 
Elms, through Litley orchard, and descending the meadow on the 
north slope of Aylestone Hill to pass by the Burcott Pool, and on to 
Tenbury. 

TRADITIONAL WELLS. 

The ley brings to mind or discovers many of these, for a straight 
track went to or past all of them. There are Holy Wells at Dinedor, 
between Blakemere and Preston, and under Herrock Hill. As children, 
living close by, we used to call the Coldwell at Holmer the Holywell, 
and found our way by stepping stones to the ancient stone built well 
now destroyed. It was much like the Chamber well near the mill 
at Weobley. The Golden Well near Dorstone is on a ley running 
through Arthur's Stone, the Gold Post (a mountain cot), and terminating 
in Pen-y-Beacon. The two "golds " on one track indicate a trader's 
way. Leys go straight to, and not beyond, many wells in the Malvern 
ridge — St. Ann's, Holy Well, Walms (there is a Walmer Street named 
from a ley in Hereford and a surname Walmsley), St. Pewtress, and 
one (whose name I do not find) near the Chase Inn, above Colwall, 
which village itself is the Cole's — or magic man's — well. 

I have photographed in Cornwall the pointed " beehive " stone 
structure covering a Holywell, surmounted by a cross ; the whole 
obviously suited for a sighting point. Here and there, as at the Flint- 
shire Holywell, a chapel has been built over the well. Our local 
example is at Marden, where the well, in the west end of the church, 
central with the nave (and the ley), is connected with the tradition of 
St. Ethelbert. 

There is an ancient well in Goodrich Churchyard, with a track 
way obviously passing over it, but not through the church. 

24 



PREVIOUS DATA. 

A number of observers have recorded confirmatory facts. 

Mr. G. H. Piper (" Woolhope Club Transactions, 1882," p. 176) 
says : "A line drawn from the Skerrid-fawr (mountain) northwards 
" to Arthur's Stone would pass over the camp and the southernmost 
" point of the Hatterill Hill, Old Castle, Longtown Castle, and Urishay 
" and SnodhiU Castles." 

Mr. Thos. Codrington (" Roman Roads in Britain," 1903) says : 
" Between the extreme points there are many straight pieces not 
" quite in the same line, generally pointing to some landmark. There 
" are several instances where a barrow or tumulus was the landmark, 
" the road passing round it on nearing it. Silbury affords one example, 
" and Brinklow, on the Foss, another." 

Mr. James G. Wood (" Woolhope Club Transactions, 1910," 
p. 146) says : " The origin and purposes of these tumps associated 
' with Roman roads will well repay investigation. I have traced a 
' line of such works across South Monmouthshire and West Gloucester- 
' shire from Caerleon through Caerwent into the Forest. All of these 
' are so placed that each is in sight of the next in either direction. 
' Again, we find that such roads were in many cases ranged or laid 
' out in line with small camps or such tumuli — being, in fact, surveying 
' stations." 

The Rev. S. Baring-Gould (" Book of Dartmoor," 1900) says : 
1 The stone row is almost invariably associated with cairns and 
' kistvaens. They do not always run parallel ; they start from a 
' cairn and end with a blocking stone set across the line." 

The Rev. S. Bentley (" History of Bosbury," 1891) says : 
' Under the cross in the churchyard, at its removal to its present 
' site in 1796, a huge shapeless mass of rock weighing upwards of two 
' tons was found. This stone now lies in the churchyard close to 
' the tower on the south side." Another writer refers to it as this 
' large unhewn mass of Silurian rock." 

Mr. HiUaire Belloc ("The Old Road," 1904), writing of the 
Pilgrim's Way, says : " Now on its way from Winchester to Canter- 
' bury the Old Road passes, not in the mere proximity of, but right 
' up against, thirteen ruined or existing churches." 

Mr. Belloc also says : " The sacredness of wells is commingled 
" all through Christendom with that of altars " ; and giving Continental 
instances, also refers to the one under the altar at Winchester. 

d 25 



ROMAN ROADS. 

The exact relation of Roman roads to the earlier leys is a matter 
for future investigation, but our co-member Mr. Jack is on the right 
lines when investigating the surface construction to find whether a 
road can be called Roman. It is not easy to realise that many British 
roads were as ancient to the Roman invaders as the Roman remains 
are to us. 

My general impressions from observed facts are that the Roman 
surveyors used the sighting system ; that they utilized the old track- 
ways, imposing greater width and their far superior road surface 
and foundations ; also that working during the degeneration of the 
ley system, they did not appreciate the long distance primary points, 
but working on short distance hills and points their roads are not so 
consistent and individual. I find evidence that they established their 
stations on the original leys, and that these were then so numerous 
as to form the boundaries of stations or towns, and thus decide their 
polygonal shape. It is also probable that a great many Roman roads 
of which portions remain were never completed, although the sighting 
points of the original ley continue on the line. 

The road from Aymestry to Mortimer's Cross comes down to the 
Wye in the cutting at Bridge Sollars. 

The " Roman " straight road from Leintwardine through Pay toe 
and Wigmore Moor (the subject of recent digging) continues as a ley 
through Lucton and Kingsland Churches. 

I consider the existing maps of Roman roads to have little value 
as being based on the assumption that there were no straight sighted 
roads before the Romans came, and that (quite illogically) such a 
road could go round corners, and had to follow the tracks over which 
some old writer had travelled. I find the so-called straight Roman 
roads, as from Kenchester to Lugg Bridge, to be really on several 
slightly diverging leys, three in this case. 

PLACE NAMES. 

The ley and its sighting points were earlier than homesteads, 
hamlets, or towns, and as the latter evolved on the tracks, place names 
naturally bear traces of their origin. 

It is no reflection on philologists that, not knowing of the ley, 
they have made misinterpretations, and have a huge mass of corrections 
to make. In particular they will find a past neglect in translating 
place names in the fight of traders coming along the road and meeting 

26 




Plate XI. 



CHURCHYARD CROSS. 
Bitterley. 




Plate XII. 



TREE. 
Eastwood Oak, Tarrington. 



the buyers at settled points. The man who brought the long-coveted 
gold ornaments might only come once a year, but to the women of 
the community the Gold Hill, Gold Post, or Golden Cross (roads), 
where they met him, or the Golden Valley, along which he came, would 
be likely to take their names from his wares. There are two of each 
of the above Gold place names in the county. 

The notes which follow must be taken rather as suggestions 
than as final conclusions. 

The common suffix — ley — indicates a ley of the character denoted 
by the first element in the name, and " meadow " is not, I think, 
the right interpretation. The numerous Leys Hills are not likely 
to be so called from meadows. 

The suffix — ton originated by a mark stone on the ley becoming 
the nucleus of a homestead, and perhaps later a town. 

The suffix — bury clearly indicates a mound which was a sighting 
tump. It is a strange development that these tumps were coveted 
both as places to be buried in and to live on. Mrs. Gillespie (who 
lived at Trewyn, Pandy, for 17 years) writes me : "I suppose you 
know that Trewyn was built on a burial mound," and goes on to 
describe the discovery of a cist with human remains which they dug 
up under one of the rooms. I had told her how Trewyn was on two 
leys (therefore on a sighting point), one being down the avenue of 
ancient pine trees straight for Alt-y-Ynis. 

Barrow (another mound name) occurs at Cradley, Pembridge, 
and Wheelbarrow Castle, Leominster ; Canon Bannister shows that 
Coldborough was formerly Colbarwe, and he also associates borough 
and bury as from the same root. A variation is berrow as in Brooms- 
berrow. Just as the sighting stone — ton became the site of our modern 
town, so the mound evolved into the borough. 

Low — the universal name for the mound in Derbyshire — is not 
bo common here. But Wormlow Tump, Ludlow, Warslow, and 
Bradlow indicate sighting points. 

Bury is used alone as the name for a tump, as in the many Bury 
Farms, or as at Ivington Bury. A farmer still calls the earth covered 
tump in which he winters his roots a bury. Towns like Ledbury first 
grew round a sighting mound. 

" Broom " occurs with great persistence on leys, with its varia- 
tions brom and bram. Bromley and Bramley, Bromton and Bramton, 
Bromfield (where is the Old Field with a number of tumuli), Brooms- 
green, Broomsberrow, and the many Broomy Hills are examples. 
It is not confined to one form of sighting point, and I surmise (from 

27 



a faint line of evidence) that a component part of our modern broom 
was an essential working implement of the skilled ley man, and was 
continued as the staff of the mediaeval pilgrim. Whether the plant 
broom was the original root word or a derivative I cannot say. 

Lady Lift (a hill-point mound) is on a ley with Lady Harbour 
Farm, and the prefix Lady is applied to court, grove, ridge, oak, and 
meadow in the county. The Lady Harbour of Hereford Cathedral is 
on one of the leys which form Church Street, and had the name before 
any church was built there. It might possibly indicate a woman's 
shelter on the road. 

The suffix — tree, probably originated in a single tree planted 
as a sighting point, either as at " Cross of the Tree " in Deerfold Forest, 
or to mark the apex of a natural hill as illustrated in Plate XII. 
Webtree is on such a hill with two leys passing through it. Its name 
signifies that it is the spot where the webbe or weaver met his buyers. 
He travelled along the webbe-ley, and there are three Weobleys 
(formerly Webbeley) in the county, at Weobley Ash, and Weobley 
Cross, also the better known townlet. He also met others at a mark 
stone now known as Webton. The surnames Webb, Webber, and 
Webster still survive. 

In the same way another first word element gave the place 
names (and surnames from them) of Bosley (Cattle-ley), Boston, 
Bosbury, Boswell, Bostock, and Boscastle. Again, Stanley, Stanwell, 
Stanton, Stanbury, and Stanbatch. And I have shown how the 
white (salt) man gave the first element to innumerable place names 
on his route. There is a Silver Tump and a Brass Knoll in the Olchon 
Valley, both proved sighting tumps. 

The names Bowley, Bowling Green (farm, also a quarry near 
Ewias Harold), Bolitree, Bolstone, Bollingham, Bal Mawr, Balls 
Cross, Ballgate, Bellgate, Bellimore, and Belmont, all seem akin to 
the rounded outline of an inverted bowl, or to boils, bowels, and 
belly of animal life, and indicate the rounded tump. 

The house at Bolitree is built on a tump with signs of a moat, 
and as I found a ley through Bollingham (house and chapel) I went 
there to find the bol, and there it was, a fine tump with an old summer- 
house on its summit. 

Gate in a place name (as in Hill Gate, Three Gates, Ballgate, 
England's Gate, Burley Gate, etc.) did not mean, as now, something 
which stopped a way (that was called a lid-yatt), but the way itself. 
It is much the same as the word pass. The same element (modified) 
is in such names as Gatley, Gatsford, Yatton, Symonds Yat, Woodyatt's 
Cross. 
28 



Lee Line and Timberline Wood are place names clearly describing 
leys. There is a Linton and a Linley at Stanford Bishop — the mark 
stone and the ley. I think that Lyonshall, Lynhales, Lion Farm, 
and Hobby Lyons are variations. 

Such names as Winslow, Preston Wynne, Winsley, and Winyard 
(Radnor Forest) indicate the road by which wine was brought. Totnor, 
Totteridge, Tothill, and Twt indicate (as Mr. J. G. Wood has pointed 
out) tumps, and they are all sighting tumps on leys. Mr. Wood (who 
has come very near discovering the ley) also — in Woolhope Transac- 
tions for 1919 — connects Titterstone, Clee Hill (Plate I.) with the 
word Tot or Toot. Tooting and Tottenham are London forms of the 
word. Rosemary Topping (English Bicknor) is a much prettier name 
for a sighting tump. 

Bur or Burl seems to be descriptive of some form of sighting- 
point. Leys pass through Burley, Burlton, Burton (many of this 
name), Burford, and The Burcot ; and there is a Burl Hill in 
Radnorshire. 

Although a ley ran from peak to peak there must have been 
an earlier termination to its useful part, or a still more restricted part 
used by traders. Hence — in London — Finsbury ; Capel-y-fin in 
the Black Mountains ; and Fine Street, near Letton, have probably 
the same meaning, which, however, seems to be locally more often 
expressed by the word end, as in New End (Canon Pyon), Red Wych 
End (Cowarne), Nupend, etc. 

As regards the place name element " broad " (also brad and 
bred), a ley passes through Broad Green (Orleton), The Broad, north 
of Leominster, Broadward, south of Leominster (dead on the main 
road at each of these two), and on to Broadlands at Aylestone 
Hill, Hereford. It was the road, not the place, which was broad, 
constructed for wheel traffic, for which the previous pack-horse tracks 
were too narrow. Mr. Allan Bright, of Barton Court, Colwall, wrote 
me, pointing out that a ley from the Wych through his house to Ledbury 
Church, also ran through a meadow of his called Broadley Meadow. 
Such names as Bradley, Bradlow, Bradford, Broadmoor, Broad Oak, 
and Bredwardine are thus explained. 

Probably most instances of the word elements, little and long, 
apply to the roads which pass through the places. Hereford is (no 
doubt correctly) said to mean " army road." Little Hereford is not 
a small edition of the town, but of the road. Litley is the small ley, 
Longley is the long ley, and so with the stone, grove, land, and ford 

29 



(there have been two Longfords). Long in old spelling was often 
lange ; and little, lutel or luttel — these from Canon Bannister's list. 
Hence come the (places and surnames) Langstone, Langford, Lang- 
land, Langton, Lutley, Luton. The two Leinthalls — Earles and 
Starkes — are seldom called by these second names locally, but are 
Little Leinthall and Long Leinthall respectively, the element leint 
(occurring also in Leintwardine) being I surmise derived from ley. 
Little Leynthale, to quote an old spelling, would be the meadow 
traversed by the short ley. 

DISCOVERY BY PLACE NAME. 

I have experienced this in several cases, and will detail one. 
A local antiquarian (Mr. W. Pilley) always maintained that there 
had been an ancient spring — the Bewell spring — close to Bewell House 
and the Hereford Brewery within the City. When I lived there with 
my father we knew nothing of it. But about a year ago the present 
owners in sinking a new deep well and building a new engine house, 
uncovered the following inscription cut in stone in the base of the 
brewery wall, but covered by a rockery in my time : — 

WELL, 71 FEET, 1724. 

I had always felt that the derivation given for the place name 
Bewell Street as Behind-the-wall Street was an error. 

There is a hill on the Canon Pyon road called Bewley or Bewdley 
Pitch. Solely on account of my surmise that the Bew-ley might 
lead to the Bew-well, I tried a line on the map and found a ley exactly 
falling on this " pitch " (or steep road) passing from the north through 
Bishops Moat (west of Bishops Castle), Meer Oak, Bucknell Church, 
Street Court, Stretford Churchyard, and Birley Churchyard, and 
exactly over the site of the well. Southwards over Palace Ford, 
Dinedor Camp, Caradock, Picts Cross, Horn Green Cross, Walford 
Church, Leys Hill, Speech House ; there being numerous confirma- 
tions in fragments of road. 

THE LEY-MEN. 

The fact of the ley, with its highly skilled technical methods, 
being established, it must also be a fact that such work required skilled 
men, carefully trained. Men of knowledge they would be, and therefore 
men of power over the common people. And now comes surmise. 
Did they make their craft a mystery to others as ages rolled by. 
Were they a learned and priestly class, not admitted until completing 

30 





Plate XIII. TREES. 

i. A One-tree Hill, Llanvihangel-nant-Melan. 

2. Scotch-Fir (or Scots Pine) Avenue, Monnington (See Plate XVII. V 





Jftutk'}.' 





'late XIV. 



CAMPS. 



i- One ol the Four Mounds, Sutton Wall; 
2. Herefordshire Beacon. 



a long training — as Caesar describes the Druids. Or did they — as 
Diodorus and Strabo says of Druids — become also bards and sooth- 
sayers. Did they, as the ley decayed, degenerate into the witches 
of the middle ages. Folk-lore provides the witches with the power 
of riding through the air on a broomstick, the power of overlooking, 
that of the evil eye. They (in imagination) flew over the Broomy 
Hills and the Brom-leys. It may be that the ancient sighting methods 
were condemned as sorcery by the early Christian missionaries. 

Were they the laity or lay-men of Beowulf ? 

In later days our first English poet was one Layamon, and in 
his time were men called Ley-cester, Leye, and Ley-land. 

In the Oxford Dictionary is given the obsolete word cole as 
meaning in the 16th century a false magician, a juggler, and cole- 
prophet (or cold-prophet) with a similar meaning, and there is a cole- 
staff or cowl-staff also mentioned, which, although then meaning a 
carrying stick, was — I surmise — originally the working sighting staff 
of the cole -man, who was the magician of the ley. The word still 
survives in colporter, a walking seller of books, who carries his wares 
slung over his shoulder on a stick. 

We have in our district Coldman's Hill, Coldstone Common, 
Coles Tump (Orcop), and Coles Mountain (Presteign). In other parts 
of England are Coley, Colbury, Colebatch, Colestock, Coleshill, 
Coleford, Coleham, Colchester, and Coleridge, which last has an 
alternate name Coldridge, confirming other instances of the intrusion 
of the d. I surmise Cold Harbour (Kentchurch) to have been Cole 
Harbour. 

Colmanswell in Ireland possesses to-day a " sacred " well, and 
this name, together with our own ancient Colewelle in Herefordshire, 
now altered to Colwall, is probably nearer the original root meaning 
than is the case of the three Coldwells at Holmer, Kingston, and 
English Bicknor. 

A Bishop's name Colman is mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon 
Chronicle, and Cole is also a common surname to-day. 

There are other names for a ley-man indicated in the two Derby- 
shire place names, Totmans Low and Laidmans Low, the Low being 
a sighting mound. 

HINTS TO LEY HUNTERS. 

Keep to the discovery of lines through undoubted sighting 
points, as artificial mounds (including castle keeps), moats and islands 

3i 



in ponds or lakes. In practice churches can be treated as sighting 
points, but in some cases a ley passes through a tump or well close 
to the church. Avoid for a time the temptation of taking every bit 
of narrow straight road and extending it into a ley. Scrap every 
ley you think you have discovered if it does not pass through at least 
four undoubted sighting points exclusive of roads. 

You must use Government ordnance maps. One mile to the 
inch is the working scale. Other maps of two or four miles to the 
inch are quite useless, save for checking long leys. 

The (B) " Popular edition, mounted and folded in covers for 
the pocket," is the most convenient for field work and is the cheapest, 
as it contains over double the area of the older (C) 18 x 12 edition ; 
but I have found the latter (uncoloured, in flat sheets) necessary for 
transferring leys from one map to the next on drawing boards in 
the office. 

Maps cut in sections are useless for this exact work. 

About four drawing boards, a light 24-inch straight edge, a T 
square for pinning down the maps accurately to line with the boards, a 
moveable head T square to adjust to the angle of the ley, so as to transfer 
to the next map, and a box of the glass headed pins used by photo- 
graphers (in addition to the usual drawing pins) are the minimum 
essentials for real work. A sighting compass for field work used in 
conjunction with a special divided quadrant on the moveable head 
of square are aids I have found valuable. 

Remember that the entire course of a ley can be found from 
two undoubted sighting points on it if marked on the map. Therefore 
stick a glass headed pin in these two points, apply the straight edge, 
and rule the line, pencil it at first, ink afterwards. 

When you get a " good ley " on the map, go over it in the field, 
and fragments and traces of the trackways will be found, always 
in straight lines, once seen recognised with greater ease in future. 

Where close detail is required, as in villages and towns, the 
1" scale is far too small, and the 6" scale is necessary. The angle of 
the ley is transferred to it from the 1" map with the aid of the moveable 
head square. Maps must be pinned square on the board by the T 
square passing through identical degree marks on the edges, latitude 
for leys running E. and W., but longitude for leys N. and S. The 
edges of the maps are not truly in fine with the degree lines, and must 
not be the guide. 

Ley hunting gives a new zest to field rambles, and the knowledge 
of the straight ley provides new eyes to an eager observer. 

32 



I have a mental vision of a Scout Master of the future, out ley 
hunting with the elder boys of his troup, instructing them as they 
look out from a high sighting point. " Now, Harold ! if you only 
take that pole out of your eye, you will see better to pick out that 
distant moat that Cyril has in his eye. He's got it, right enough, 
just a speck of light from the ring of water round the island. When 
I told you to use your pole as a sighting staff, I didn't tell you to 
see nothing else. Now we have found the ley, I think we shall see 
a bit of the old track in that far grassy field this side the moat ; it's 
narrow and straight, and there are many who never find it because 
they look for a broad way like our present wheel tracks." 

A FEW LEYS. 

(Additional to others detailed in text and maps). 

Colva Hill to Birdlip Hill, via Parton Cross, Breinton Camp 
and Ford, Red Hill, Holme Lacy House, Caplar Camp, Yatton Church, 
Moat and Camp beyond Newent, and dead on " Ermin Street " for 
five miles. 

Gwaun Ceste Hill to Brimpsfield Castle, via Michaelchurch, 
Eaton Camp, Perry Hill, Dinedor Cross, Tump, Brockhampton Old 
Church, Cross in Hand, Upton Court, The Conigree, Rudford Church, 
Gloucester Cathedral, Castle Hill, Witcombe Park, and Blacklains. 

Gwaun Ceste Hill to West Tump, via Colva Church, Brilley 
Green, The Scar Rock (Brobury), down Monnington Walks (central), 
Monnington Church, The Chantry, Perrystone, Mullhampton, Anthony's 
Cross, Tibberton Court, Llanthony (Glos.) Abbey, and dead on a 
Gloucester street. 

Little Mountain (Westbrook) to St. Ann's Well and Priory 
Church, Malvern, via Arthur's Stone, Cross End, Moccas Church, 
Monnington Church, Credenhill (old) Court, Pipe and Lyde Church, 
and Beacon Hill. 

Pen-y-Beacon to North Hill, Malvern, via Sugwas Park, Ten 
Houses Pond (Plate VI.), Burcot Pool, White Stone Chapel, Shucknell 
Hill, Stretton Grandison Church, Moat at Birchend, and Mathon 
Church. 

Croft Ambury to Y-Fan-Drongarth (2,410 peak in Brecon Beacon 
group), via Hill Barn, Easthampton, Milton House, Court of Noke, 
Elsdon, Bollingham Chapel Tump, Clyro Church, Llowes Church, 
Bryn-Rhydd, and Slwch Camp, Brecon. 

a 33 



Bailey Hill (Knighton) to May Hill (Longhope), via The Warden, 
Presteign, Golf Course Tump, Holmer, Holmer House, Holmer Lane 
Tump, Venn's Lane, The Prospect and Tupsley Hospital Road, Main 
Street and Church, Fownhope, Caplar Camp, How Caple Church, 
Old Gore Cross, and Linton Church. 



ENDWORD. 



I close up my patchwork pages for this booklet, and a tired 
brain finds relief in two memories. The one of the day, just on half 
a century ago, when, a lad on a trader's route for my father's brewery, 
I pulled up my horse to look with wonder at the Four Stones, standing 
like sentinels in a field corner. Later in the same day, the steep slope 
of the Radnor Forest surmounted, came the first view of Castle Tomen 
at the summit of the Forest road, with its background of Wye and 
Irfon Valley (Breconshire) Mountains. And the note of unsatisfied 
wonder struck that day has fingered through nearly fifty years' 
unusually intimate knowledge of our beautiful West Country border 
land, and I know now that my sub-conscious self had prepared the 
ground and worked at the problem I now see solved. 

The second memory is the vivid one of the rush of revelations 
in the gorgeous year of sunshine just finished. And I can scarcely 
realize that half the year had gone, the clear smoke-free distances of 
early summer a thing of the past, and midsummer day over, before 
I got the first clue. Once started, I found no halt in the sequence 
of new facts revealed by active search on the tracks. 

It is a mere framework for a new knowledge that I offer, but 
I know that it has solid foundations, and that good wholesome field 
work by others — for it may not be granted to me to do very much 
more — will fill in many gaps. That is why I write. 

Postscript. In some districts — as Salisbury Plain and the 
Yorkshire Wolds — there are groups of adjacent barrows so numerous 
that it is probable that most of them were built as burial mounds only, 
not sighting mounds. This is not the case in the district investigated. 



34 




Plate XV. CHURCH. 

Ledbury, the Spire sighted up Church Lane. 



INDEX. 



Most of the Places indexed are in Herefordshire ; those in adjoining counties are, if 
necessary, indicated by the initial of the county {as R. for Radnor) following the name- 

Arthur's Stone . . 6, 14, 24, 

Abdon Burf (S.) . 

Aberllynfi-Gaer (B.) 

Aconbury Church . 

Almeley Batch Twt 

Almeley Woontou . 

Altars 

Alt-y-ynis 

Anthony's Cross (G.) 

Assemblies . . 

Avenues (trees) 

Avenues of Pines 

Aylestone Hill 

Aymestrey . . 

Bach Ball (R.) 

Backbury 

Badesley Clinton (Warwick.) 

Bailey Hill (R.) 

Baldwin (Archbishop) 

Bal-Mawr (B.), Balls Cross, Ballgate, 

Bannister, Rev. A. J. 

Baring-Gould, Rev. S. 

Barrow 

Barton Court 

Bartonsham Farm 

Bassam 

Batch 

Beachley (G.) 

Beachwood Mound 

Beacon Hill 

Bellgate, Bellimore, Belmont 

Belloc, Hillaire 

Belmont 

Bentley, Rev. S. 

Beowulf 

Bewell Spring 

Bewley or Bewdley 

Bible parallels 

Bicknor Walks (G.) 

Birdlip HiU (G.) 

Birchend Moat 

Birley Church 

Birley Hill . . 

Bitterley Cross (S.) 

Bitterley (S.) 

Bishop's Moat (S.) 

Black Darren 

Black Hill, Olchon 



25, 


33 


Blackfriars, Hereford 


24 




18 


Blacklains (G.) 


33 




6 


Black Mountains 


. 5, 17 




20 


Black Traders road 


23 




6 


Blackwardine 


9 




19 


Bobblestock Hill 


19 




25 


Bolitree, Bolstone, Bollingham . 


28 




27 


Bollingham 


17, 33 




33 


Bosbury, Boston, Bosley 


28 


10 


14 


Bosbury Cross 


25 


5, 


20 


Boswell (Staff.), Bostock (Staff.) 


> 




27 


Boscastle (Cornwall) . . 


28 




24 


Borough 


27 




26 


Bowley Bowling Green 


19, 28 






Bowley Town 


14 




18 


Boy Scouting 


33 




19 


Bradley, Bradlow 


27, 29 




16 


Bramley 


27 




34 


Brampton Bryan 


6 




17 


Bramton 


27 


3, 




Brass Knoll 


28 


5, 


28 


Bredwardine 


29 


27, 


30 


Breinton 


20, 33 




25 


Bren Tor (Devon) 


22 


10, 


27 


Bridge Sollars . . . . 16 


, 20, 26 




29 


Brilley Green 


33 


5, 


17 


Brinsop 


16 


o, 


17 


Brimpsfield Castle (G.) 


33 


6, 


10 


Brinklow (Wilts.) 


25 




22 


Brinmfield 


24 




23 


Broad Green 


29 




33 


Broad (The) 


9, 29 




28 


Broadlands, Broadley, Broadward 


29 




25 


Brobury Scar . . . . 5, 6 


, 19, 33 


16, 


18 


Brockhampton Church 


33 




25 


Bromton 


27 




31 


Bromfield 


27 




30 


Bromley (Kent) 


27 




30 


Broom 


27, 28 




33 


Broomsgreen (G) 


27 




12 


Broomsberrow (G) 


27 




33 


Broomstick 


31 




33 


Broomy Hill 


27, 31 




30 


Brown Clee (S.) 


18 




6 


Bryn-y-Maen (R.) 


18 




5 


Bryn-Rhydd (R.) 


33 


4 


18 


Bucknell Church (S.) 


30 




30 


Bullingham 


24 




4 


Burcot Pool . . . . 16 


, 24, 33 




6 


Bury 


10 



35 



Burial Mound . . . . 14, 20, 27 

Bur, Burton, Burford, Burcot . . 29 

Burl, Burley, Burlton . . . . 29 

Burley Gate 28 

Bury 27 

Bush Bank 17 

Byford Ford 6 

Caerleon (M.) 25 

Caerwent (M.) 25 

Cairn 10 

Camps— 6, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 20, 21, 22, 

25, 33, 34 
Canterbury 
Capel-y-fin (B.) 
Capel-y-tair-ywen (B.) 
Caplar Camp 
OftiFflj clock 

Castles— 4, 6, 10, 11, 20, 21, 22, 23, 25, 

28, 31, 33 
Castle Hill (Glos.) . . 
Castle Hill (Hereford) 
Castle Farms 
Castle Tumps 
Castle Tomen 
Causeways 
Chamber Well 
Chantry, Perrystone 
Christian Era 
Churchdown (G.) . . 

Churches— 6, 7, 11, 12, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 
24, 25, 26, 28, 29, 33, 34 

Cist 27 

Clee Hill (S.) 4, 18 

Clifford 6 

Clyro Church (R.) . . . . 33 

Codrington, Thos. . . 15, 25 

Colchester, Coleham, Coleridge . . 31 

Coldborough 27 

Cold Harbour, Coldridge . . . . 31 

Coldman's Hill, Coldstone . . 31 

Coldwell 24, 31 

Cole, Coleman .. .. 24, 31 

Cole-prophet, Cold-prophet . . 31 

Cole-staff 31 

Coleshill, Colestock, Coleford . . 31 

Colewelle, Colmanswell . . . . 31 

Coles Tump, Coles Mountain . . 31 

Coley, Colebury, Colebatch . . 31 

Colva Church (R.) . . . . 33 

Colporter . . . . . . . . 31 

Colva Hill (R.) 32 

Colwall 24, 31 

Commerce . . . . . . . . 10 

Concrete in Causeways . . . . 4 

Conigree (G.) . . . . . . 33 



13, 25 

5, 17, 18, 29 

6 

21, 33, 34 

30 



33 

14, 23 

22 

6 

4, 34 

4, 5, 13, 16, 24 

24 

33 

11 

22 



Constable's Firs . . . . . . 20 

Coronation Stone . . . . . . 17 

Coxall Knoll 6 

Court of Noke 33 

Craft of the Ley-men . . . . 30 

Cradley . . * 27 

Credenhill 5, 17, 33 

Croft Ambury . . . . 9, 21, 33 

Croft Lane . . . . . . . . 9 

Crosses . . . . . . . . 0, 17 

Cross Ash (M.) 19 

Cross Colloe 19 

Cross End Farm 6, 33 

Cross in Hand . . . . 14, 33 

Cross Oak (S.) 19 

Cross Roads .. .. 11, 13 

Cross of the Tree 19, 28 

Cruger Castle (R) 4 

Cullis 15 

Cusop 12 

Cuttings . . . . . . . . 15 

D, intrusion of letter . . . . 27 

Dancing in Circle . . . . . . 14 

Dartmoor . . . . . . 18, 25 

Deerfold Forest 28 

Duchess Walk (S.) 20 

Dial Carreg (M.) . . . . 18 

Dial Post (W.) 18 

Didley 4, 14 

Dinedor Camp .. .. 12, 21, 30 

Dinedor Cross . . . . . . 33 

Dinedor Holy Well . . . . 24 

Dolmen . . . . . . . . 14 

Domestic Camp . . . . . . 20 

Doomsday Book . . . . . . 22 

Dorstone Castle Tump . . . . 6 

Droitwich (W.) 22 

Druids 31 

Eardisland . . . . . . . . 14 

Eardisley Park 23 

Earthworks . . 10, 11, 14, 15 r 20, 21, 22, 23 

Eastwood Oak . . . . 5, 19 

Easthampton . . . . . . 33 

Eaton Bishop Camp . . . . 33 

Eccles Green . . . . . . 18 

Elsdon 33 

Enclosures . . . . . . 9 

England's Gate 28 

Ermin Street (G.) 33 

Exeter, church over ley . . . . 22 

Evolution of Moats . . 4, 10, 15 

Evolution of Mounds . . 4, 14 

Evolution of Crosses . . 5, 11 



36 



Felin-fach Moat (B.) 


• . i 


6 


Hereford 


5, 


20, 


23, 


29 


Ferries 


12, 18, 


23 


All Saints . . 


. 


12, 


21, 


22 


Field Work 


32, 33, 


34 


Barrol Street 








24 


Fine Street and Finsbury 




29 


Bishop's Meadow . 








23 


Flansford 




15 


Broad Street 




. . 




22 


Flint Age 




10 


Chapel of Hospitallers 






24 


Flint Flakes 




9 


Cathedral . . 4, 


12, 


16, 


21, 


22 


Flint Traders road 




23 


Castle Green 






21, 


23 


Folly, The (R.) 




18 


Castle Hill . . 






17, 


23 


Folk-mote 




14 


Church Street 








28 


Fords— 4, S, 6, 12, 13, 15, 


17, 29! 30, 


33 


Harley Court 








16 


Forest 


20, 


25 


The Knoll . . 








23 


Foss (Glos. and Wilts.) . 




25 


Offa Street . . 






12, 


22 


Four Stones (R.) 


'. 4, 18, 


34 


Overbury 








23 


Fownhope 




34 


Palace 








23 


Franchise-stone 




20 


Prospect 








34 


Froom's Hill 




17 


St. John Street 

St. Peter's .. 








24 

22 


Gallows Tump 




23 


Quay Street 








24 


Gam 




10 


Venn's Lane 








34 


Garnons 




23 


Wye Street . . 








17 


Garron River 




4 


Herefordshire Beacon 






6, 


21 


Gate 




28 


Herrock Hill, Holy Well 








24 


Gatley 


! 15, 


28 


High Cullis 








15 


Gatsford 




28 


Hill Barn 








33 


Gillespie, Mrs. 




27 


Hill Gate 








28 


Gillow 


'. 6, 


16 


Hill-tracks 








7 


Giraldus 


4, 


17 


Hobby Lyons 








29 


Glade 




12 


Hoggs Mount . . 5, 


21, 


22," 


23, 


24 


Gladestree (R.) 




12 


Holme Lacy House 








33 


Glascwm Hill (R.) 




6 


Holmer . . 5, 6, 16, 


19, 


24,' 


33, 


34 


Gloucester 




33 


Holmer Tumps 


5, 


23, 


24, 


34 


Golden Cross 




27 


Horn Green Cross 








30 


Golden Well 




24 


Homesteads . . 4, 


11, 


22, 


26, 


27 


Gold Hill 




27 


Holy Wells 






6, 


24 


Gold Post 


! ".". 24 


27 


Hope -under-Dinmore 








18 


Gold Traders road 


. . 24, 


27 


Houghton Mound . . 








4 


Golden Valley 




27 


How Caple Church 








34 


Goodrich 




24 


Hunderton 








17 


Gospel Oaks 


11, 


19 


Hungerstone 






14, 


15 


Great Oak 




19 


Hungerford (Mid.) 








15 


Green Crise 




20 












Grosmont (M.) 




17 


Implements for mapping 








32 


Grove 




19 


Ingestone 


. 




5, 


13 


Gwaun ceste Hill (R.) 




33 


Iron 

Irion Valley (B.) 






16 


23 
34 


Hampstead Heath (Mid.) 




20 


Island on moat 






15, 


16 


Hargest Ridge 




16 


Ivington Bury 








27 


Harrow (Mid.) 




22 












Harpton Court (R.) 




20 


Jack, G. H. 


. 






26 


Hatterill Hill 




25 












Hay Tump 




6 


Kenchester 




18, 


19, 


26 


Haywood Forest . . 




23 


Kender church 








22 


Hell Moat, Sarnesfield 




6 


Kiln Ground Wood 








23 


Hentland Cross 




17 


King's Acre Elm 








19 


Henwick . . . . , 




23 


Kingsland Church 








26 



37 



Kington Church . . . . . . 22 

Kistvaena . . . . . . . . 25 

Knap 10, 23 

Knoll 10, 23 

Lady Harbour . . . . . . 28 

Ladylift — court, grove, meadow . . 19, 28 

Laidmans Low . . . . . . 31 

Laity, laymen . . . . . . 31 

Lakes 16, 32 

Lane . . . . . . . . 12 

Lay see Ley 
Layamon 
Laynes Farm (G.) 
Laysters Pole 



Ledbury 
Lee Line 
Leintwardine 
Leinthall 
Lemore 
Letton Lakes 
Leys 

Leycester 
Ley Farms 
Leys Hill (G.) 
Ley hunting — 
Ley-men 
Leys, route of- 



31 

13 

19 

6, 16, 22, 27, 29 

29 

26, 30 
29 

4 

16 

to 34 

31 

12 

27, 30 
9, 11, 30, 31, 32, 33 

10, 12, 14, 15, 30, 31, 33 

6, 10, 11, 12, 13, 20, 22, 

23, 24, 25, 26, 29, 30, 33, 34 

28 

29, 34 



Lidyatt 

Linton 

Linley 

Lion Farm 

Litley . . . . 17, 20 

Little Hereford 

Little Mountain (R.) 

(Westbrook) 

Llanelieu Church (B.) 

Llanigon (B.) 

Llanigon Mound (B.) 

Llansaintfraed-in-Elvel (B.) 

Llanthony (Mon.) 

Llanthony (Glos.) 

Llanvihangel Court (M.) 

Llanvihangel Crucorney (M.) 

Llanvihangel-nant-Melan (M.) 

Llowes Church (R.) 

Longtown .. 4, 5, 13, 15, 

Longford 

Longworth 

Low . . . . . . 10, 

Lucton Church 

Ludgate Hill, London 

Ludlow (S.) 

Lugg Bridge 

Lyde Cross Tree . . 

Lyepole 

38 



29 

29 

24, 29 

29 

6 

33 

6 

5 

6 

18 

5 

33 

20 

4, 15 

18 

33 

25 

30 

20 

27, 31 

26 

22 

27 

26 

19 

19 



20, 



Lyonshall, Lynhales 



29 



Mackay, J. C. 


m , 




18 


Madley 


5, 


17, 


22 


Maescoch 






6 


Mainstone Court 






12 


Malvern Priory Church . . 




6, 


33 


Malvern Hills . . 6, 12, 


15, 


23, 


24 


Magna 






18 


Magician 






31 


Marden Church 


. 




24 


Marstow 




4, 


15 


Mark Stones— 5, 10, 16, 17, IS 


, 21 


, 23 


24 


Mathon Church 






33 


May Hill (G.) 






34 


Maypole 






19 


Meer Oak (S.) 


. 




30 


Menhirs 




5, 


17 


Merbach 


. 




6 


Merry Hill 




14, 


23 


Michaelchurch Escley 




6, 


33 


Milton 






33 


Moats— 4, 6, 7, 10, 11, 14, 15 


16 


24, 


33 


Moccas 


6, 


22, 


33 


Monnington Walks 


5, 6 


, 19 ; 


33 


Monnington Church 




6, 


33 


Monnow 




4, 


13 


Moreton-on-Lugg 






19 


Mote and Moat 






33 


Mortimer's Cross 






26 


Mouse Castle, Hay 






6 


Mouse Castle, Hereford . . 






23 


Mounds— 4, 6, 7, 10, 11, 12, 


14, 


19, 


20, 


21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 


27, 


28, 


29, 


30, 31, 32, 33, 34 








Mound — evolution of 






14 


Mound (various names for) 






10 


Mountain Tracks 




5 


12 


Mynydd-Brith Tump 






6 


Mynydd Ferddin Hill (B.) 






23 


Mullhampton 






33 


Neolithic Age 




10, 


13 


Newchurch Hill (R.) 






23 


New End 






29 


New Radnor Castle (R.) 






20 


North Hill Malvern 






33 


Notches — sighting 




4, 


15 


Nupend 






29 


Oaks 


6, 


11, 


19 


Oakley Park (S.) 






20 


Olchon . . . . 5, 


12, 


13, 


28 


Oldcastle 




12, 


25 


Old Gore Cross 






34 


Old Radnor Church 


. 




20 






> 





Plate XVII 1 



HOUSE IN MOAT. 
Gil low. 



One Tree Hill 


5, 


19 


Rosemary Topping (G.) 


29 


Ordnance Maps 


11, 


32 


Ross 


19 


Over Ross 




19 


Rudford Church (G.) 
Rushwick (W.) 


33 
23 


Pains Castle Mound (R.) 




6 






Palmer's Court 




6 


Salt 


22 


Palace Ford, Hereford 




30 


Symonds Yat 


28 


Parks 




20 


Saltways 


9, 22, 23 


Park Hall (S.) 




4 


Saltmarshe Castle 


23 


Parallel Roads 




12 


Sarnesfield Moat 


6 


Partricio (M.) 




17 


Scotch (or Scota) Fir 


5, 19, 20 


Parton Cross 




33 


Scots Hole 


23 


Paytoe 




26 


Shrewsbury 


22 


Pedlar's Cross 


.'.' 8, 


17 


ShuckneU Hill 


6, 33 


Pen-y-Beacon . . 4, 


6, 24, 


33 


Shelwick 


14 


Perry Hill 




33 


Sighting Columns 


21 


Perrystone 




33 


Sighting Cuttings . . 


4, 15 


Philology 




26 


Sighting Methods 


9 to 34 


Picts Cross 




30 


Sights, rifle 


9 


Pilgrim's Way, Kent 


" 13, 


25 


Sighting Stones . . 4, 5, 6 


, 11, 17, 18, 21 


Pilgrim's Staff 




28 


Silbury (Wilts.) 


25 


Pine (Scotch or Scots) 




20 


Silver Tump 


28 


Piper, G. H. 




25 


Sites and Sighting — 11, 14 


16, 21, 22, 24 


Pipe and Lyde Church 




33 


Skirrid (M.) 


4, 25 


Ponds .. 4, 5, 10, 11, 13, 


14, 16, 


32 


Slwch Camp (B.) . . 


33 


Portcullis 




15 


Snodhill Castle 


25 


Pottery, Ancient 


5, 6, 


23 


Soothsayers 


31 


Precipice Walk 




12 


Speech House (G.).. 


30 


Preston-on-Wye Church 




6 


St. Ann's Well (W.) 


6, 24, 33 


Preston Wynne 


" 15, 


29 


St. Clement Danes, Londo 


a .. 22 


Primary Peaks 




10 


St. Ethelbert 


24 


Priory Wood, Clifford 




6 


St. Guthlac Church 


24 


Putson Ford 




20 


St. Ishaw's Well (M.) 
St. Martin's in the Fields 


17 
22 


Queen's Stone 




17 


St. Mary le Strand 
St. Paul's Cathedral 


22 
22 


Radnor Forest 


4, 


34 


St. Pewtress Well . . 


24 


Rhiw Wen . . 




17 


St. Tecla's Chapel (G.) . 


22 


Rhiw 




5 


St. Michael's Mount 


22 


Rhos-goch Castle Tump (R.) 




6 


Stanbatch, Stanbury 


28 


Redborough (R.) .. 




23 


Stanton, Stanley, Stanwell 


28 


Red Gates 




23 


Stock 


14, 19 


Red Hill 




33 


Stoke Prior 


18 


Red House 




23 


Storridge 


23 


Red Ley 


" 12, 


23 


Stone Rows 


25 


Red Lion 


5, 


17 


Street Court 


30 


Red Pottery 


5, 6, 


16 


Stretford Church . . 


30 


Red Traders road 


5, 6, 


23 


Stretton Grandison 


9, 33 


Red Wych End 




29 


Suffix 


27 


Redley 




12 


Sugwas Park 


33 


Ridge-ways 




7 


Surveyors, early 


14 


Risbury Camp 




9 


Surveyors, ley-men 


30 


Roman Stations 


9, 18, 


26 


Surveyors, Roman 


15. 21 


Roman Surveyors . . 15, 18, 


20, 21. 


26 


Sutton Lakes 


16 


Roman Roads . . 9, 10, 13 


16,25 


,26 


Sutton Walls 


6, 18, 20 


Roofing Tile-stones 




5 







39 



Talgarth Church (B.) 








6 


Water Gate (Inigo Jones') 


. . 


15 


Tan House 








13 


Wat.ling Street, London . . 




22 


Tarrington 








5 


Webtree 




28 


Tenbury (W.) 








24 


Webton 




28 


Ten Houses 








4 


Wellington 




19 


Terminal Hills 






10, 11, 


21 


Wells— 6, 10, 11, 24, 25, 28, 


30,' 31, 


33 


Three Elms 






19, 


24 


Weobley 


6, 22 


24 


Three Gates 








28 


Weobley, Ash and Cross . . 




28 


Thruxton 








15 


Wergin's Stone 


5, 17, 


18 


Timber Line Wood 








29 


Wheelbarrow Castle 




27 


Tibberton Court (G.) 








33 


Whitcliffe 




23 


Tin Hill 








23 


Whitfield 




23 


Tin Traders road . . 








23 


Whitney, pottery at 


5, 6, 


23 


Tinkers Hill and Cross 


(W.) 




23 


Whitman's Wood 




23 


Titterstone Clee Hill (S.) 




4 


Whitwick Manor 




22 


Tomen 




4, 


10 


Whitecastle (M.) 




23 


Totnor, Tothill, Toot 






29 


White Cross 




23 


Totmans Low (Derby) 






31 


White House 




22 


Totteridge, Tottenham 






29 


White Rocks 




23 


Traders' roads — 9, 10, 


17, 


22, 23, 


24, 


White Stone 


17," 22, 


33 






27, 28, 


29 


White Traders' road 




23 


Trees 


5, 10, 


12, 19, 


20 


Whiteway Head 




23 


Tre-fedw Mound (M.) 




4, 


14 


Whitewell House 




23 


Xrewyn Home (M.) 




20, 


27 


Whetstone 




16 


Trewyn Camp (M.) 




4, 


15 


Wick (W.) 




22 


Triangular Woods . . 






12 


Widemarsh 




24 


Tumps— 6, 10, 12, 14, 


15, 20, 


21,' 22, 


23, 


Wigmore 


6, 22, 


26 




25, 27, 


31, 33, 


34 


Wilton Castle 




19 


Tumpa (B.) 








6 


Winchester 




25 


Tumpy Lakes 










16 


Wind's Point 




6 


Tumpey Ley 










12 


Winforton 




19 


Tumulus 










10 


Winslow, Winsley, Winyard 




29 


Tupsley 










34 


Witcombe Park (G.) 




33 


Turnaston . . 










17 


Witches 




31 


Turrett Tump 










6 


Withington 




15 


Twt, Tooting 




10, 


29 


Withington Lakes 

Wood, Jas. G 


.'.' 25, 


16 

29 


Upperton 






18 


Woodyatts Cross 




28 


Upton (Bishop) Court 






33 


Woolhope Church 




23 


Urishay Castle 






25 


Wormelow Tump 
Worsell 




27 
12 


Vowchurch Cross 




5, 


17 


Wyaston Leys 
Wych 


14, 23, 


12 

29 


Walmer Street 






24 


Wye 


26, 


34 


Walmsley 




. . 




24 


Wye Street 




5 


Walm's Well 








24 








Walford Church 








30 


YarkhiU 




16 


Walton (R.) 








18 


Y-Fan-Drongarth (B.) 




33 


Walsopthorne 








6 


Yarpole 




19 


Warden The (R.) 








34 


Yat 




28 


Warslow 








27 


Yatton 


.. 28, 


33 


Warwick, Chapel o 


ver 


ley 






22 









40 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. 

Six of the photographs are by Mr. W. M. McKaig, helper in 
many miles of ley-hunting. 

This page is King 8vo. in the Ideal series of paper sizes, wherein 
octavo and quarto have the same proportion, and three master sizes 
give a full series of uniform shape. 

The letterpress printed by the " Hereford Times," Ltd., of 
Hereford. 

The half-tone blocks by Messrs. Emery Walker, Ltd., London, 
except six kindly lent by the Woolhope Club. 

The illustrations and maps printed by Messrs. Ebenezer Baylis, 
Worcester. 

The two-colour title by Mr. W. E. Henner, Hereford. 



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41